16.4.1 Types of anticipation and reference

Here we come to a topic, where practicing and learning by doing will be more effective. However, we would like to present the rules that you can turn back to them in case of doubts. Most of the time you will notice that you just do it right by intuition. We would like to encourage you to use your language intuition, because sooner or later all rules are forgotten and this is, what's left then.

Now, coming back to the phenomenon of anticipation of contexts or objects and their referring afterwards. This is done with the help of pronouns or pronominal adverbs (something between a pronoun and an adverb), they stand for something else that was already mentioned (referrence afterwards) or will be mentioned (anticipation).

  There are four possibilities for pronouns of anticipation
ce = this, that , it
  ce que = what
  il = it (if it does not mean he)
  ça = it (not with the verb être)

This sounds now a bit difficult, but it is not half as difficult as it seems.

  Examples for anticipation with ce and ce que
  Ce que tu viens de dire, est faux.
  That, what you said is wrong. <=> What you said is wrong
  C' est bizarre ce qu' il fait.
    It is strange, what he does.

If the pronoun que refers to a context, this context needs first to be summarized with ce. This que refers to ce. In the translation we use then what.

  Examples
ce / il / ça / cela : To form a sentence we need to have a subject (the one, who is doing whatever is described) If this subject is actually a context, then we use ce / il / ça or cela.
  C' est une bonne idée.
    This is a good idea.
  Il est évident, qu' il n' a pas la moindre envie de le faire.
    It is obvious that he absolutely does not feel like doing it.
    NOTE: Il n' a pas osé lui dire la vérité. (il = he)
    He does not dare to tell him the truth.
  Cela ne m' intéresse pas du tout.
    This does not interest me.

Now, let's have a closer look, when to use which of these pronouns.





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