15.8.4 Redundant personal pronouns

In English as well as in French there are redundant pronouns to refer to an element or a context of a phrase, even though this not necessary to understand the sentences. In French it is not used to refer to subordinate clauses as we see in the first examples as it would be possible in English.

Il a renoncé à lui dire ce qu' il en pensait.
  He renounced (it) to tell her what she thinks.
Il n' ose pas lui dire la vérité.
  He did not dare (it) to tell her the truth.
Il a nié avoir volé cet argent.
  He denied (it) that he stole the money.
Il espère pouvoir partir bientôt.
  He hoped (it) to be able to leave soon.
Cette femme, est-ce que tu l' as vue?
This woman, have you seen her?
Son premier roman, il l' a écrit en prison.
  His first novel, he has written (it) in prison.


In French it is necessary in the last two examples, it cannot be omitted, in English not in all cases.

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